BCA First Semester Society and Technology Question and Answers 2018

BCA First Semester Society and Technology Question and Answers 2018

11. How sociology is a general science? Discuss with example.


Sociology is often regarded as a general science because it aims to understand human interaction and social life in a comprehensive and broad manner. Unlike specific sciences that focus on particular aspects of human existence, such as economics, politics, or psychology, sociology adopts a holistic approach by studying the entirety of human activities and social phenomena.

One key aspect that distinguishes sociology as a general science is its emphasis on understanding human behavior within the context of social groups and structures. While psychology delves into the individual psyche and behavior, sociology shifts its focus to the dynamics of groups, communities, and societies as a whole. For example, while psychology might investigate the motivations and behaviors of individual actors within a family, sociology would analyze the family unit as a social institution and explore how its members interact, communicate, and fulfill various roles within the broader societal framework.

Moreover, sociology is often described as the “psychology of groups” due to its interest in understanding how collective behavior emerges from individual actions and interactions. It explores how social norms, values, and institutions shape the behavior of individuals within a group and how group dynamics influence societal structures and processes. For instance, sociologists might study how cultural norms and socialization practices within a particular community contribute to the formation of social identities and group cohesion.

Additionally, sociology shares similarities with anthropology, another discipline concerned with the study of humankind. However, while anthropology focuses on the holistic study of human cultures, societies, and civilizations across time and space, sociology primarily examines contemporary social phenomena and institutions. Anthropology often involves immersive fieldwork and ethnographic research to gain insights into the cultural practices, beliefs, and traditions of different societies, whereas sociology typically relies on a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze social trends, patterns, and dynamics within modern societies.

In essence, sociology’s status as a general science stems from its interdisciplinary nature and its broad scope of inquiry into human social life. By examining social interactions, structures, and institutions from a holistic perspective, sociology seeks to uncover the underlying patterns and processes that shape human behavior and societal development. Through empirical research and theoretical analysis, sociologists contribute to our understanding of the complexities of social life and the challenges facing contemporary societies.

(Check in for Society and technology questions)

12. “Family is a primary social institution”. Describe its features in third world society.


The family is universally recognized as a primary social institution, playing a foundational role in shaping individuals and societies. In third-world societies, its significance is often amplified due to cultural and economic contexts. Here, we delve into the features of the family within third-world societies:

a. Formation and Composition:  

   The family is formed through sexual relationships, encompassing marriage and blood ties. It consists of individuals who share a common household, interacting in various social roles such as husband, wife, parents, siblings, and extended relatives.

b. Types of Families:  

   Third-world societies typically exhibit various types of family structures, including:

   – Joint Family: Multiple generations residing together under one roof, sharing resources and responsibilities.

   – Nuclear Family: Comprising parents and their children, living independently or within a separate household.

   – Extended Family: Involving multiple generations cohabitating and sharing familial duties and responsibilities.

c. Features of Family in Third-World Societies:  

   – Universality: The family institution exists universally across cultures and societies, albeit with variations in structure and dynamics.

   – Determinants of Structure: The structure of the family is influenced by cultural norms, traditions, and the form of marriage prevalent in the society.

   – Emotional Bonds: Families foster emotional connections among members, providing support, care, and nurturing relationships.

   – Limited Size: Families in third-world societies often have a limited size due to socio-economic constraints and cultural preferences.

   – Social Regulation: Families contribute to maintaining social order and cohesion through the transmission of norms, values, and traditions.

   – Permanence and Temporality: While families are considered permanent entities, their composition and dynamics may change over time due to factors such as migration, marriage, or death.

   – Common Habitation: Family members typically reside together in a shared dwelling, fostering close interactions and interdependence.

   – Agent of Personality Development: Families play a crucial role in shaping individual identities and personalities through socialization processes.

   – Lineage and Heredity: Families are instrumental in determining lineage, passing down familial heritage, traditions, and genetic traits.

   – Functions: Families fulfill various functions, including childbearing, rearing, protection, provision of residence, socialization, cultural transmission, and satisfaction of emotional and physical needs.

   – Religious, Economic, and Educational Functions: Families often serve as centers for religious practices, economic activities, and educational endeavors, transmitting cultural and practical knowledge across generations.

In summary, the family in third-world societies serves as a cornerstone of social organization, embodying cultural values, traditions, and practices while fulfilling essential roles in individual and societal development. Its features reflect a complex interplay of socio-cultural factors and economic realities, underscoring its enduring significance in human societies.

3. Define socialization and describe its stages and agents.


Socialization is a fundamental process that begins during childhood and continues throughout one’s life, whereby individuals acquire the values, habits, and attitudes of their society. It involves learning the norms, roles, language, social skills, and cultural practices necessary for integration into a group or community. Socialization enables individuals to adapt to their social environment and develop a sense of identity and belonging.

Stages of Socialization:

Society and Technology Question

a. The Oral Stage:  

   This initial stage of socialization begins at birth and extends through infancy. Infants rely heavily on their caregivers, typically their mothers, for survival and care. During this stage, babies develop a sense of dependency and establish basic expectations for their needs to be met. They learn to communicate through crying and develop early attachments to their primary caregivers.

b. The Anal Stage:  

   The anal stage occurs during early childhood, typically from around one to three years of age. It is named for the focus on toilet training during this period. Children begin to internalize roles and norms, distinguishing between acceptable and unacceptable behavior based on guidance from their parents or caregivers. They learn to regulate their bodily functions and behaviors through reinforcement and socialization.

c. The Puberty Stage:  

   This stage spans from approximately the fourth year to puberty, usually around the ages of 12 to 13. During this period, children start to identify with broader social roles beyond their immediate family. They become more aware of their gender identity and social expectations associated with it. Adolescents begin to navigate their place within society and develop a sense of belonging to larger social groups beyond the family unit.

d. The Adolescence Stage:  

   Adolescence marks the transition from childhood to adulthood and is characterized by increasing independence and autonomy. Adolescents seek greater freedom and autonomy while still negotiating parental guidance and societal expectations. This stage involves identity formation, exploration of individual interests and values, and the development of relationships outside the family sphere.

Agents of Socialization:

a. The Family:  

   The family serves as the primary agent of socialization, providing the initial context for learning social norms, values, and behaviors. Family members impart cultural traditions, language, and social skills through daily interactions and modeling behaviors.

b. The School:  

   Schools play a crucial role in socialization by transmitting formal education and societal norms. Students learn academic knowledge, social rules, and cooperation through classroom interactions, extracurricular activities, and peer relationships.

c. Peer Groups:  

   Peer groups exert significant influence during adolescence, shaping attitudes, behaviors, and identity formation. Interactions with peers provide opportunities for socialization outside the family and contribute to the development of social skills, group norms, and peer relationships.

d. Religious Institutions:  

   Temples, churches, mosques, and other religious institutions serve as agents of socialization by imparting religious beliefs, moral values, and cultural practices. Religious rituals, ceremonies, and teachings reinforce social norms and provide a sense of community and belonging.

e. Mass Media:  

   Mass media, including television, radio, internet, and social media, influence socialization by disseminating cultural values, norms, and ideologies. Media representations shape perceptions of self and society, influencing attitudes, behaviors, and identities across diverse populations.

In summary, socialization is a lifelong process that involves multiple stages and agents working together to shape individuals’ understanding of themselves and their roles within society. From infancy through adolescence and into adulthood, socialization enables individuals to navigate their social environment, form relationships, and participate in the broader social fabric of their community.

4. What is technological society? Describe its features in third world society.


A technological society is characterized by the pervasive influence of technology in all aspects of human life and activity. It refers to a society where technology plays a central role in shaping social, economic, cultural, and political systems. In a technological society, the development, use, and application of advanced technology have significant implications for individuals, communities, and the overall organization of society.

Features of Technological Society in Third World Societies:

a. Dependency on Technology:  

   Third World societies increasingly rely on technology for various aspects of daily life, including communication, transportation, healthcare, education, and industry. Dependence on technology has become integral to the functioning of these societies, influencing social norms, behaviors, and lifestyles.

b. Improved Communication and Information Systems:  

   Technology has revolutionized communication and information systems in Third World societies. Access to mobile phones, the internet, and social media platforms has facilitated rapid communication, information sharing, and connectivity, bridging geographical distances and enabling global interactions.

c. Advancements in Healthcare:  

   Technological advancements have led to significant improvements in healthcare services in Third World societies. Innovations in medical equipment, diagnostic tools, and treatment modalities have enhanced disease identification, management, and prevention, contributing to improved health outcomes and increased life expectancy.

d. Enhanced Access to Education and Research:  

   Technology has expanded access to education and research opportunities in Third World societies. Online learning platforms, digital libraries, and educational resources enable individuals to pursue academic and professional development, irrespective of geographical barriers or socioeconomic constraints.

e. Efficiency in Industrial Production:  

   Technology has facilitated greater efficiency and productivity in industrial production processes in Third World societies. Automation, mechanization, and digitalization have streamlined manufacturing operations, reduced production costs, and increased output, contributing to economic growth and development.

f. Easy Transportation:  

   Technological advancements in transportation infrastructure have improved mobility and accessibility in Third World societies. Modern transportation systems, including roads, railways, airports, and public transit, facilitate the movement of goods, services, and people, promoting economic integration and regional connectivity.

g. Facilitated Administration and Documentation:  

   Technology has simplified administrative tasks and documentation processes in Third World societies. Digital record-keeping, electronic databases, and information management systems enable efficient data storage, retrieval, and analysis, enhancing organizational efficiency and decision-making.

h. Promotion of Innovation and Entrepreneurship:  

   Technology fosters innovation and entrepreneurship in Third World societies by providing platforms for creativity, collaboration, and enterprise development. Start-up ecosystems, technology hubs, and incubation centers empower individuals to harness technological tools and resources to address local challenges and create sustainable solutions.

In summary, a technological society in Third World contexts is characterized by the pervasive influence of technology in various spheres of life, driving social, economic, and cultural transformations. While technology offers numerous benefits and opportunities for development, its adoption and integration must be accompanied by measures to address digital divides, ensure equitable access, and mitigate potential risks and challenges.

15. What are the key research methods in social science? 


Social science research methods encompass a variety of approaches used to gather and analyze data for understanding social phenomena. These methods include both quantitative and qualitative techniques, each serving different purposes in the research process.

Quantitative research methods involve collecting numerical data from a large sample size to analyze trends, patterns, and relationships statistically. Surveys, experiments, and statistical analysis are common tools used in quantitative research. This approach allows researchers to generalize findings to larger populations and test hypotheses rigorously.

Qualitative research methods, on the other hand, focus on exploring the depth and complexity of human behavior and experiences. Techniques such as interviews, focus groups, and ethnographic observations are employed to gather rich, descriptive data that provide insights into individuals’ perspectives, motivations, and social interactions. Qualitative research is particularly useful for understanding social contexts, cultural norms, and subjective meanings.

Both quantitative and qualitative research methods have their strengths and limitations, and researchers often use a combination of approaches to gain a comprehensive understanding of social phenomena. This mixed-methods approach allows researchers to triangulate findings, validate results, and provide richer insights into the complexities of human behavior and society.

16. What is kinship? Discuss its types


Kinship refers to the social relationships between individuals within a society that are recognized as binding, whether by blood ties, marriage, adoption, or other rituals. It encompasses the various roles, norms, institutions, and cognitive processes associated with these relationships.

There are two main types of kinship found in societies worldwide:

a. Consanguineal Kinship: This type of kinship is based on blood relations. It includes relationships between individuals who share biological descent or ancestry. For example, the relationships between parents and children, siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins are all forms of consanguineal kinship. These relationships are considered fundamental and universal in most societies, forming the basis of family structures and social networks.

b. Affinal Kinship: Affinal kinship refers to relationships formed through marriage or other forms of partnership. When individuals enter into marital unions, they establish new kinship ties with their spouse’s relatives. For example, the relationship between a husband and wife, as well as their relationships with their in-laws, constitutes affinal kinship. Unlike consanguineal kinship, which is based on biological connections, affinal kinship is socially constructed through the institution of marriage.

These two types of kinship are foundational elements of social organization in all human societies. They help define individual identities, roles, and obligations within family units and larger social groups. Additionally, kinship systems vary across cultures and can influence patterns of inheritance, social status, and social interaction within communities.

17. What are the factors of social and cultural changes? Discuss only three factors.


Social and cultural changes are influenced by a multitude of factors, each playing a significant role in shaping the dynamics of societies. Three key factors contributing to social and cultural changes include:

a. Physical Environmental Factors:

Geographic changes and natural calamities such as climate variations, storms, earthquakes, floods, and droughts can have profound impacts on social life. These environmental factors directly affect human habitats, agriculture, and livelihoods, leading to shifts in population distribution, migration patterns, and economic activities. For instance, changes in climate patterns can alter agricultural productivity, prompting population movements and influencing cultural practices related to farming and food production. Environmental disasters can also disrupt social structures and community resilience, necessitating adaptive responses and fostering cultural changes in coping mechanisms and resource management.

b. Demographic Factors:

Demographic changes, encompassing aspects of population size, composition, and distribution, play a pivotal role in driving social and cultural transformations. Factors such as birth rates, death rates, and migration patterns shape the demographic structure of societies, impacting family dynamics, kinship systems, and social institutions. Changes in population demographics, such as aging populations or shifts in gender ratios, can have far-reaching implications for social cohesion, intergenerational relationships, and workforce dynamics. Demographic transitions also influence cultural norms and values, as societies adapt to evolving population profiles and changing social needs.

c. Economic Factors:

Economic influences, particularly industrialization and technological advancements, exert significant pressures on social and cultural systems. Industrialization revolutionizes modes of production, labor relations, and urbanization processes, leading to profound changes in social organization and lifestyle patterns. Economic developments drive shifts in occupational structures, income distribution, and consumer behaviors, shaping social stratification and cultural practices related to work, consumption, and leisure. Moreover, globalization and market integration facilitate the exchange of ideas, goods, and cultural practices across societies, fostering cultural diffusion and hybridization processes. Economic disparities and inequalities also fuel social tensions and conflicts, prompting cultural responses and resistance movements aimed at addressing socio-economic injustices.

These factors interact in complex ways, influencing the pace, direction, and outcomes of social and cultural changes in diverse societies. Understanding their interplay is essential for comprehending the dynamics of social transformation and fostering sustainable development strategies that promote social equity, cultural diversity, and environmental stewardship.

Group C : Attempt any TWO questions. [2×10=20]

18. What is national integration? Discuss its major dimensions.


National integration is the cohesive force that binds together individuals belonging to diverse backgrounds, cultures, religions, regions, and ethnicities within a nation, fostering a sense of unity and common identity. It is the collective endeavor to build a harmonious society where all citizens feel a shared commitment to the well-being and progress of their country, regardless of their individual differences.

Major Dimensions of National Integration:

a. Political Dimension:

In the political dimension, national integration is manifested through the equitable distribution of power and representation among different social groups within the governance structure. It entails ensuring that all segments of society have a voice in decision-making processes and policies that affect them. This includes representation of minority groups, protection of minority rights, and fostering inclusive political participation. Political institutions play a crucial role in promoting national integration by upholding democratic principles, ensuring the rule of law, and safeguarding the rights and liberties of all citizens.

b. Social Dimension:

The social dimension of national integration revolves around fostering social cohesion, inclusivity, and equality among individuals from diverse social backgrounds. It entails promoting social justice, eliminating discrimination, and fostering mutual respect and understanding among different communities. Initiatives such as affirmative action, social welfare programs, and community engagement activities aim to bridge social divides, promote social mobility, and create a sense of solidarity among citizens. Additionally, promoting cultural diversity, tolerance, and interfaith dialogue fosters social harmony and strengthens the bonds of national unity.

c. Economic Dimension:

Economic integration involves creating opportunities for inclusive economic growth and development that benefit all segments of society. It entails reducing disparities in income, wealth, and access to resources by implementing policies that promote economic empowerment, job creation, and poverty alleviation. Investing in infrastructure development, education, healthcare, and social services helps to address socio-economic inequalities and promote social mobility. Moreover, fostering entrepreneurship, innovation, and sustainable development contributes to building a more resilient and inclusive economy that benefits the entire population.

d. Psychological Dimension:

The psychological dimension of national integration pertains to the emotional attachment, sense of belonging, and collective identity that individuals develop towards their nation. It involves fostering a shared sense of pride, loyalty, and commitment to the nation’s values, ideals, and heritage. Psychological integration is characterized by a deep-seated feeling of unity and solidarity among citizens, transcending individual differences and fostering a strong national identity. This dimension emphasizes the importance of promoting patriotism, civic responsibility, and national consciousness among citizens, instilling a sense of ownership and allegiance to the collective welfare of the nation.

Efforts to promote national integration require a multi-faceted approach that addresses political, social, economic, and psychological dimensions simultaneously. By fostering inclusivity, equity, and solidarity among citizens, nations can build resilient societies capable of overcoming challenges and achieving shared goals, thereby ensuring peace, stability, and progress for all.

19.  Discuss the accountability of computer professionals towards society with examples.


Accountability of computer professionals towards society is a paramount aspect in today’s technology-driven world. These professionals wield significant power and influence through their work, making it essential for them to uphold ethical standards and consider the societal implications of their actions. One notable organization that exemplified this accountability is Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR).

Established in 1983, CPSR was a global organization dedicated to promoting the responsible use of computer technology. It brought together computer scientists, researchers, and professionals from around the world to advocate for ethical computing practices and address pressing societal issues related to technology. CPSR played a pivotal role in educating policymakers and the public on various technology-related concerns, ranging from privacy and security to workplace issues and community networks.

One of CPSR’s key initiatives was its opposition to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), a US defense project aimed at using artificial intelligence in military systems. CPSR raised awareness about the potential risks and ethical implications of such technologies, organizing debates and conferences to engage stakeholders and foster informed discussions.

Furthermore, CPSR incubated numerous projects aimed at promoting privacy, digital rights, and social justice, including the Electronic Privacy Information Center and the Computers, Freedom and Privacy Conference. By advocating for transparency, accountability, and responsible decision-making in the tech industry, CPSR demonstrated the accountability of computer professionals towards society.

In addition to organizational efforts like CPSR, individual computer professionals also have a responsibility to consider the societal impact of their work. They should strive to design and develop technologies that prioritize the well-being and rights of individuals and communities. This may involve conducting thorough impact assessments, consulting with stakeholders, and advocating for ethical guidelines and regulations within their organizations.

Overall, the accountability of computer professionals towards society encompasses a range of ethical considerations and proactive actions aimed at promoting the greater good. By upholding ethical standards, advocating for social justice, and actively engaging with societal issues, computer professionals can contribute to a more responsible and equitable use of technology for the benefit of all.

20. What are the basis steps of proposal writing in social research describe in brief.


Research proposal writing is a crucial step in social research, providing a structured plan for conducting a study and addressing key aspects of the research process. Below are the basic steps involved in writing a research proposal:

a. Research Title: The title should succinctly summarize the main focus of the research project.

b. Introduction: Provide background information on the research topic, including its significance and relevance to the field of study.

c. Statement of the Problem: Clearly articulate the research problem or question that the study aims to address.

d. Objectives: Outline the specific goals and objectives of the research, indicating what the study aims to achieve.

e. Research Questions: Formulate clear and concise research questions that guide the investigation.

f. Hypothesis Formulation (if applicable): State any hypotheses that will be tested during the research.

g. Expected Outcomes: Describe the anticipated outcomes or findings of the study.

h. Rationale of the Study: Justify why the research is important and how it contributes to existing knowledge in the field.

i. Limitations of the Study: Acknowledge any potential limitations or constraints that may impact the research process or results.

j. Literature Review: Summarize relevant literature and studies related to the research topic, providing context and theoretical foundation for the study.

k. Theoretical Framework: Present the theoretical framework or perspective that guides the research approach.

l. Conceptual Framework: Outline the conceptual framework or model used to conceptualize the study’s variables and relationships.

m. Research Methods: Detail the research methods and procedures to be employed, including:

    – Research design

    – Sample size, sampling procedure, and sampling technique

    – Data collection procedure

    – Data analysis procedure and instruments

n. Time Schedule (Gantt Chart): Create a timeline or schedule outlining the sequence of research activities and milestones.

o. Budget (if required): Estimate the financial resources needed to conduct the research, including expenses for materials, equipment, and personnel.

p. References: Provide a list of references cited in the proposal, following a consistent citation style.

By following these steps, researchers can develop a comprehensive and well-organized research proposal that effectively communicates the rationale, objectives, and methodology of the study.

Do follow our Facebook page Routine of BCA and join our Facebook group BCA Students of Nepal to stay up to date with similar content like of BCA First Semester Society and Technology Question and Answers 2018 and other latest updates and connect with other like-minded individuals. Thank you for visiting our website and we look forward to your participation in our community.

Abiral Acharya

Myself (Abiral Acharya) an undergraduate BCA student from Mechi Multiple Campus, Jhapa.

Leave a Reply